Table of Contents
Section 6: Bibliography
Authentic Cadence: A cadence that resolves V or V7 to tonic.
Bass: The lowest sounding note in a chord. Do not confuse this with the root; the bass note is the root of the chord only when the chord is in root position.
Cadence: A harmonic and rhythmic object that signals the end of a phrase, period, section, movement. It is usually a place of rest, a resolution of tension.
Close Position: All chord tones sounding without gaps between (ascending vertically C-E-G). Open position will have gaps between the chord tones (ascending vertically C-G-E).
D.C. al Fine: Da Capo al Fine translates "the head to the end." This mark means to return to the beginning and play to the end (signified by a double barline; this is often somewhere in the middle of the piece).
D.S. al Fine: Dal Segno al Fine translates "from the sign to the end." This mark means to return to the sign and play to the end.
Diatonic: Pertaining to a key. Diatonic notes are those that belong to the key, diatonic chords are those built with these notes.
Dissonant: Not consonant. Historically, the dissonant intervals are seconds, augmented fourth/diminished fifth, sevenths, and the compounds of these.
Dominant: The fifth degree of the scale and the chord built on that degree. Roman numeral V. Also, the vii° chords are often termed dominant because of their function.
Resolution: The resolving of dissonance to consonance.
Ritornello: Term characterizes first movement concerto form, particularly during the Classical era. The ritornello is the primary theme, which recurs in various keys in alternation with the soloist.
Secondary Dominant: A chord that functions as the dominant (V or vii°) of a note other than the prevailing tonic.
System: One line of music, whether a single stave in a solo score or 20 staves of an orchestral score.
Tonic: The primary note of the key (in A major, tonic is A). The first degree of the scale and the chord built on that degree.
Tonicization: Making a non-tonic note into a tonic. This often involves a secondary dominant setting up the new tonic by a V-I (i) harmonic progression.